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你要明白宋朝热武器中这四种军事科技可不简单
发布日期:2019-08-12 22:31   来源:未知   阅读:

  鲁迅在一篇文章上写道:“外国用火药制造子弹御敌,中国却用它做爆竹敬神;外国用罗盘针航海,中国却用它看风水。”其实,鲁迅说错了,因为历史上,中国人发明了火药,很快就应用于军事,北宋时汴京有一个大型的兵工厂叫”广备攻城作“,下设了”火药作“,就是制造各种火器的工厂,宋朝人发明的罗盘,也是用于航海。世界上最早的管状火枪,名叫”突火枪“,就是宋人发明的。宋人还利用火药制造出”霹雳火球“”火炮“等可投掷的火器,类似于今天的手榴弹,当然了杀伤力不如手榴弹,但是原理是一样的。宋朝之所以能够抵御一波又一波的北方强敌,火器发挥了不可忽视的作用。南宋初,金国完颜亮率兵渡江南下伐宋,北宋统帅虞允文在采石矶迎击金兵时,就是用了先进的”霹雳炮“火器,里面是火药和石灰,爆开后散为烟雾,进入敌人和战马的眼睛,最后大败金兵,这就是采石矶大捷。宋朝人还发明了一种近距离杀伤力很厉害的火器——”猛火油柜“,根据《武经总要》记载,猛火油柜以熟铜做柜,内装了猛火油也就是石油,柜下方有四脚,上方有四个铜管,铜管上横置一条长长的唧筒,与油柜相通,唧筒前部设置”火楼“里面装了火药,作战时,点燃”火楼“的火药,用力抽拉唧筒,利用空气压力喷出猛火油,猛火油经”火楼“形成烈焰,形若火龙,可将五六远的敌人与装备烧掉。宋人制作的”床子驽“则是远程杀敌的利器,北宋初,魏丕将床子弩的射程提高到一千步,宋朝一步大概是1.53米,千步有1530米,这应该是古代射程能达到的最远射程了,在宋辽澶洲之战中,宋军就是用床子驽杀了辽军大将军萧挞凛,大挫契丹士气,迫使辽军议和,签订澶渊之盟。在南宋时,水师也装备了一种”车船“,利用人力脚踏带动飞轮高速旋转,从而驱动战船迅速前进,是宋金战争中阻击金兵的大型装备。宋朝还率先使用了”装甲船“,名叫”铁壁铧嘴平面海鹘“,南宋人秦世辅所制,固定欲钱料。排水量约为60吨,船壁装有铁板,船首装有铁制铧嘴,可以在水战中撞沉敌船。在中国军事史上,宋代处于于从冷兵器时代到热兵器转化的过程,新技术包括火药的应用非常广泛,可惜的是这种军事装备上的先进性,还不能产生绝对优势,也无法维持技术的垄断,每次有新技术发明,很快就会被敌军学去。

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